Health Article
Dec 30, 2020

Lung Disease

The lungs are organs that play an important role in the respiratory system / respiration.  So that if this function is disturbed, it will greatly affect human health.


It is an inflammation of the airways leading to the lungs (bronchi).


  • Bacterial infection,
  • Infection caused by germs or viruses
  • Cigarette smoke
  • Dust or other pollutants

Symptoms: cough, fever, yellow phlegm, shortness of breath


A temporary narrowing of the respiratory tract (spasm), may be caused by heredity, changes in temperature, dust, humidity and emotions.

Symptoms: difficulty breathing accompanied by a raised voice.


A lung tissue infection (parenchyma) caused by viruses, bacteria or fungi.  Generally caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Streptococcus.


  • Cough with phlegm
  • Thick, yellow phlegm
  • Hard to breathe
  • Accompanied by fever and chest pain


A lung disease caused by loss of elasticity of the alveoli (air bubbles in the lungs).  In people with emphysema, the volume of the lungs is larger than in normal people.  Usually the main cause is cigarette smoke and a deficiency of Alpha-1 enzyme.


  • Shortness of breath for a long time
  • Decreased appetite
  • Weight loss


An infectious disease caused by acid-resistant bacteria, called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (abbreviated as Mtb or Mtbc).

Transmission of TB is through airborne droplets containing the Tb bacteria.  Tb usually attacks the lungs, but can also attack other parts of the body, such as the central nervous system, lymph system, bones and so on.

Signs and symptoms of TB disease:

  • Prolonged cough (3 weeks or more)
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Bleeding cough
  • Night sweats


  • Counselling / Outreach to the public regarding Tb disease
  • Improve environmental cleanliness
  • Improve a clean and healthy lifestyle
  • Eat a nutritionally balanced diet
  • Maintain personal hygiene
  • Do not smoke
  • Performing the BCG vaccine in infants
  • Immediately consult a doctor if there are any of the symptoms above